March – December 2018
One of Lake Baikal Foundation’s priorities is to decrease the level of anthropogenic influence on the lake. To this end it is necessary to define its actual level and to do microbiological assessment of water. Research of such kind is important either for the state monitoring of the Baikal’s ecosystem and for local population or for the producers of water waste treatment facilities who lack information about waste in water. The Lake Baikal Foundation supported the project of the Limnological Institute of the SB RAS on the sanitary and microbiological assessment of water quality in the mouths of rivers flowing into Lake Baikal in coastal areas, including tourist and recreational zones and near settlements and tourist centers, as well as in pelagic lakes standardized indicators SanPIN 22.214.171.1240-00 within the framework of an accredited laboratory (certificate No. RA.RU.21KB02).
- to do an objective assessment of water quality in the Baikal according to standardized sanitary-microbiological indicators.
- to provide grant assistance to the Limnological Institute of the SB RAS for implementing the project;
- as a part of grant assistance to conduct the following works in May-September 2018:
- to collect samples of water and coastline ground in areas with high anthropogenic impact (Sluydyanka, Kultuk, Baikalsk, Listvyanka, Goloustnoe, Bolshiye Koty, Peschanaya bay, Babushka bay, bays of the Small Sea) and also water samples at bathymetrical station. The samples will be collected at least twice a year (May-June and August-September);
- to analyze samples of water and ground according to sanitary-microbiological indicators (detecting general coliform bacteria, TCB, Enterococcus bacteria, coliphages, coli, salmonella, coefficient of water body natural purification;
- to create a collection of pure growth creation of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, a description of their morphological and physiological-biochemical properties, determination of the level of pathogenicity and enzymatic activity, identification of resistance and / or sensitivity to antibiotics;
- to develop new methods for identification of opportunistic microflora (methods of sequencing of a new generation and a system for accelerated identification of microorganisms with the help of MALDI Biotyper).
What has been done:
- the amount of the Foundation’s grant in 2018 is 500 thousand rubles. These funds are spent for implementation of the targets listed above, project’s employees’ salaries and for technical assistance.
First stage results:
- the first part of the study took place from July 2 to July 6, 2018. Coliform bacteria were detected in all the bays of the Maloe More in numbers not exceeding admissible values regulated by SanPiN 126.96.36.1990-00. The highest numbers of CB and TCB were found in the bays Mukhor, Hugir-Nugaisky, Irkutskaya Guba and Bazarnaya (OCB equalized 1-129 CFU/100 ml, which means 500 CFU/100 ml; ТCB – 1-78 CFU/100 ml, less than 100 CFU/100 ml). Enterococci were also detected in all water samples. In the Mukhor bay the numbers were 86 CFU/100 ml, in the Irkutskaya Guba bay – 164 CFU/100 ml. Such indicators imply recent fecal contamination ingress into the water. It is worth saying that there are a lot of camping site on these bays’ coastlines. On the contrary, in the bays Hugir and Zagli characterized by low anthropogenic impact coliforms and Enterococci were found in single quantities. In all the samples the scientists found high index of self-purification which means the completeness of self-purification processes.
Second stage results:
- the second part of the study was held from 8 to 17 August, 2018. The research revealed unfavorable microbiological condition in 4 out of 8 examined bays. In samples from the Bazarnaya bay the CB number is double the norm, TCB are seven times the norm, the Enterococci number is six times the norm and index of self-purification is low (2,1-3,8). In the Mukhor bay, near the mouth of the Kuchulga river, they revealed the exceedance of Enterococci signal numbers 1,5 times higher the norm, in the bay Zuun-Khagun the number of TCB and Enterococci was double the norm. In the Kurkut bay, where there are harbours, the scientists also registered slightly higher numbers of TCB (1,2 the norm). In the Khugir-Nugaisky bay they saw quite big numbers of Enterococci, 5-7 times the norm, in the bays Khugirsky, Khul and Tutai Coliform bacteria and Enterococci did not exceed allowed and signal values;
- thus, the quality of water in the bays Mukhor, Kurkut, Zagli and Bazarnaya does not correspond SanPin 188.8.131.520-00 norm. The worst water quality was registered in the Bazarnaya bay. In the Khugir-Nugaisky bay Enterococci were found in numbers exceeding the signal values which implies recent fecal contamination ingress.
- according to normalized sanitary and microbiological indicators, the analysis of samples will allow to obtain and describe the strains collection of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms of Lake Baikal with an assessment of their clinical danger. The data will be transferred to the environmental structures at both regional and national levels;
- the study will also bring modern data about the species diversity of opportunistic microorganisms and their survival in the cold-water and deep Lake Baikal. Data are to be the source of fundamental knowledge and publications in scientific magazines.